🏛 Kazan University is one of the oldest universities in Russia.
By a personal decree of January 24, 1803, the Russian Empire was divided into 6 educational districts. The general plan for the organization of educational affairs in Russia - "Preliminary rules of public education" - divided educational institutions into parish, district and provincial schools, gymnasiums and universities. It was planned to open a university in each educational district.
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vilno, Dorpat, Kharkov and Kazan became the centers of educational districts. Thus, at that time, Kazan University became the fourth in Russia. The first were Moscow (1755) and Dorpat (1802, Dorpat - from 1919 in Tartu, Estonia). In 1795, when Lithuania became part of Russia, there were three universities in the country, taking into account Vilensky, created in 1579 (Vilna - after 1939 Vilnius).
🧾 On November 5, 1804, Alexander I signed the Certificate of Affirmation of the Kazan Imperial University and its Charter.
Initially, the university was housed in the building of the Kazan Imperial Gymnasium, built in 1796, later three neighboring houses were purchased for the needs of the institution, which made it possible to consider this quarter as a university campus. In the 20s of the XIX century, the architect P.G. Pyatnitsky is building the main building, the classical facade of which with three porticos has been preserved to this day. In the next decade, when N.I. Lobachevsky, under the direction of the architect M.P. Corinthian architectural ensemble was created.
The architect placed the anatomical theater strictly along the axis of the main building, making it the southern dominant of the entire ensemble. The buildings of the chemical laboratory and the library arose symmetrically to it; in the same period, an astronomical observatory and a clinic were built. In the XX century, the exit of university buildings outside the original historic quarter became inevitable. The geological faculty was located in the building of the former theological seminary - an architectural monument of the 18th century, on the other side of Astronomical Street in the 50s the building of the chemical building grew, and since the end of the 60s, in about ten years, two high-rise educational and laboratory buildings were erected - to the north and west of the main building. In 1989, the UNICS cultural and sports complex was put into operation, sports facilities were added to the Bustan complex, which in May 2010 was solemnly opened with the participation of the Prime Minister of Russia V.V. Putin. The construction of the eastern wing of the main building in 2003, in preparation for the 200th anniversary of Kazan University, completed it in accordance with the project of the architect Müfke dating back to the early 20th century.
During the life and activity of Kazan University, scientific schools were formed in it, which received world recognition. Here non-Euclidean geometry was born, the creator of which was the mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky played an outstanding role in the development of the university, leading it for two decades.
In 1842, a university graduate, professor N.N. Zinin was the first to synthesize aniline, thereby laying the foundations for the aniline-paint industry and the production of medicines. Two years later, in 1844, another Kazan scientist, K.K. Klaus discovered a new chemical element, which he named "ruthenium" in honor of Russia. Even more glorified the Kazan chemical school A.M. Butlerov, having created the theory of the chemical structure of organic substances, which for the chemistry of organic compounds has the same meaning as the table of D.I. Mendeleev to study the world of inorganic substances.
In the first half of the 19th century, the university turned into the largest center for oriental studies in Europe; the famous linguistic school was born here, founded by I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay. Among the pupils and scientists, whose activities in many ways contributed to the world fame of the university, there is an astronomer I.M. Simonov, a member of the first round-the-world expedition of 1819-1821, during which Antarctica was discovered and the beginning of its scientific study was laid. Within the walls of Kazan University A.F. Samoilov, the founder of the electrophysical school, recorded an electrocardiogram for the first time in Russia. The university is associated with the names of two scientists-chemists - the father and son of the Arbuzovs, who created a new direction in science - the chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. At the height of the Great Patriotic War, in 1944, E.K. Zavoisky made a fundamental scientific discovery - he recorded the phenomenon of electron paramagnetic resonance, his research was continued by S.A. Altshuler, B.M. Kozyrev, other scientists who made up the largest school of magnetic radio spectroscopy and quantum electronics.
For a ballits more than 200-year history, the university gave to science eighty full members and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the country. The university is the center of not only science and scientific education, but culture and enlightenment, the emergence of the book business in the region, the emergence of the first provincial newspaper, the development of theatrical life and much more are associated with it. The founder of the Soviet state, V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin, writers S.T. Aksakov, L.N. Tolstoy, P.I. Melnikov-Pechersky, V.V. Khlebnikov, composer M.A. Balakirev, artist V.I. Jacobi et al. By the decree of the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin dated July 30, 1996, Kazan State University is included in the State Code of Especially Valuable Objects of Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation.
In the execution of the Decree of the President of Russia D.A. Medvedeva "On the establishment of federal universities in the North-West, Volga, Ural and Far Eastern federal districts" On October 21, 2009, by order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 2, 2010, a federal state autonomous educational institution of higher professional education "Kazan (Volga region) Federal University" changes in the type of the existing state educational institution of higher professional education “Kazan State University named after IN AND. Ulyanov-Lenin ". A week later, on April 9, 2010, by order of the Government of the Russian Federation, Ilshat Rafkatovich Gafurov was appointed rector of Kazan Federal University for a period of 5 years. By the order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 14, 2015, Ilshat Rafkatovich was reappointed to the post of KFU rector for the next five-year period.
Great scientists of Kazan University
Kazan University has received worldwide recognition thanks to the outstanding scientists who worked within its walls, who made important scientific discoveries, became the founders of scientific schools. Here are just a few of these names:
ADAMYUK Emilian Valentinovich - his name is associated not only with the founding of a special department of ophthalmology at the university and the organization of the first clinic of eye diseases in Kazan, but also the formation of domestic ophthalmology in general. The multivolume manual on eye diseases was the first of its kind in Russia.
ADLER Bruno Fridrikhovich (Fedorovich) - created the first ethnographic faculty in Russia. Since 1919, he was the director of the Kazan City Museum.
ALTSHULER Semyon Aleksandrovich - discovered the phenomenon of acoustic paramagnetic resonance.
ARBUZOV Alexander Erminingeldovich - already in the 1920s, he discovered the ways of synthesis of phosphorus-carboxylic acids, for the first time obtaining esters of pyrophosphorous and in pure form of sub-phosphoric and pyrophosphoric acids. These studies have made the laboratory of organic chemistry at Kazan University a world center for research on organophosphorus compounds.
Bekhterev Vladimir Mikhailovich - laid the foundations of Russian experimental psychology. The first psychophysical laboratory in Russia was opened in Kazan in 1885.
BUTLEROV Alexander Mikhailovich - in 1861 he substantiated the theory of the chemical structure of organic substances, according to which the properties of substances are determined by the order of bonds of atoms in molecules and their mutual influence. The provisions of this theory formed the foundation of modern organic chemistry. He was not only a theoretician, but also a skilled experimenter. He was the first to explain the phenomenon of isomerism. Discovered the polymerization of unsaturated compounds. He synthesized a number of organic compounds. Alexander Butlerov - Russian chemist, creator of the theory of the chemical structure of organic substances, founder of the “Butlerov school” of Russian chemists, beekeeper and lepidopterist, public figure, rector of the Imperial Kazan University in 1860-1863.
VISHNEVSKY Alexander Vasilyevich - the work that brought him worldwide fame: the method of local anesthesia, called "local anesthesia using the creeping ilfiltrate method.
ZAVOISKY Evgeny Konstantinovich - in 1945, while defending his doctoral dissertation in Moscow, he made his discovery of electronic paramagnetic resonance known to the scientific world. ZININ Nikolai Nikolaevich - got artificial aniline from nitrobenzene, laying the foundation for the world industry of synthetic dyes (1842).
KLAUS Karl Ernest (Karl Karlovich) - in 1844 he discovered a new 57th element of Mendeleev's Periodic Table - ruthenium. It is the only natural element discovered in Russia. Klaus became one of the founders of the chemistry of platinum metals.
LOBACHEVSKY Nikolai Ivanovich - created a new (non-Euclidean) geometryby the theorem on parallel lines ”, ahead of other researchers by half a century. In 1829, an expanded version of his report entitled "On the Principles of Geometry" was published in the journal "Kazanskiy Vestnik". In 1835-1840, the scientist published 4 more scientific works, in 1855 his last work was published.
NOINSKY Mikhail Eduardovich - in 1929, at a meeting of oil workers in Moscow, based on his report, it was decided to organize oil exploration drilling in the Volga and Ural regions. This made it possible to start oil production in Bashkiria (1930s) and Tatarstan (1943-1944).
Alexander Filippovich SAMOILOV - took the first electrocardiogram in Russia, made electrocardiography by the method of physiological and clinical examination of the heart, was one of the first to use a string galvanometer to study the activity of skeletal muscles, nerves and complex phenomena of the central nervous system, was the first to express the idea of the chemical nature of the transmission mechanism excitations from the motor nerve to the skeletal muscles.
SIMONOV Ivan Mikhailovich - as an astronomer-observer participated in the round-the-world expedition of 1819-1821 by F. Bellingshausen and M. Lazarev, which discovered Antarctica. One of the more than 30 open islands was named after him. In 1843 he founded a magnetic observatory in Kazan.
CHETAEV Nikolai Guryevich - created a school of stability theory, took an active part in organizing the Kazan Aviation Institute. His scientific work was of great importance for the development of the aviation industry in the USSR. In 1940 he went to work at the Institute of Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, subsequently heading it.
FREN Christian Martin (Christian Danilovich), KOVALEVSKY Osip (Yuzef) Mikhailovich, KAZEM-BEK Alexander Kasimovich, BEREZIN Ilya Nikolaevich,
Vasilyev Vasily Pavlovich, KATANOV Nikolay Fedorovich and Khalfin Ibrahim - from the centers of European Orientalism.
ENGELGARDT Vladimir Alexandrovich - one of the founders of Russian molecular biology; discovered the process of respiratory (oxidative) phosphorylation in the human body, which laid the foundations of modern bioenergy.
Guests of our hotel in Kazan can take part in a walk (excursion) through the architectural ensemble of Kazan University with a fascinating story about the past and present of the Kazan Imperial , State, Federal University.
Various fascinating classes and programs are held for guests in the museums of Kazan University. Among them:
- Geological Museum. A.A. Stuckenberg,
- Museum of the Kazan School of Chemistry,
- Museum of History of Kazan University,
- Zoological Museum and Herbarium named after E.A. Eversman,
- N.I. Lobachevsky, Ethnographic Museum
It is very pleasant to realize that in our city there is a university with such a rich history. The distance from our hotel to the University is 1.7 km. A taxi can be reached in 5-7 minutes, and a walk will take 17-20 minutes.
We are waiting for you in our beautiful hotel!